First, the classification of the shelf system
Shelf is an indispensable part of the modern warehouse, select the right, high quality shelves can improve the level of warehouse management and efficiency, but also can reduce the cost of storage management. To choose the right shelves, you first need to understand the function of the shelf, classification and related characteristics.
1. According to the shelf installation classification, can be divided into:
(1) fixed shelves: fixed shelves can be subdivided into shelf, tray, through, gravity, press-fit, attic, steel platform, cantilevered, mobile, drawer and cow shelf The
(2) mobile shelves: mobile shelves can be subdivided into mobile shelves and rotary shelves, mobile shelves which can be subdivided into light medium-sized mobile shelves (also known as dense shelves, divided into manual and electric), heavy Tray-type mobile shelves, rotary shelves can be subdivided into horizontal rotary, re-rotary shelf two.
2. According to the overall structure of the shelf, can be divided into:
(1) welded shelves.
(2) assembled shelves. At present, most of the domestic use of assembled shelves.
3. According to the warehouse structure can be divided into:
(1) the shelf of a shelf. The shelving system and the roof of the building constitute an indivisible whole, the roof of the column directly supports the roof load, on both sides of the pillars to install the building enclosure (wall) structure.
(2) separate structural shelves. The shelving system and the building are two separate systems, with no direct connection to each other.
4. According to the shelf load per layer, can be divided into:
(1) light shelves: each load capacity of not more than 200kg.
(2) medium-sized shelves: each load capacity of 200 ~ 500kg.
(3) heavy-duty shelves: each load of 500kg or more.
5. According to the height of the shelf is divided into
(1) low shelf: height 5m below.
(2) in the low shelf: height 5m below.
(3) high shelf: height 5 ~ 12m.
(4) high shelf: 12m or more.
Second, the structure of the shelf system characteristics and selection principles
1, shelf shelf.
Shelf shelves are usually manual access to goods, assembly structure, evenly adjustable spacing, the goods are often parts or not very heavy packaging items (for manual access), the shelf height is usually below 2.5m , Or manual difficult to reach (such as supplemented by a high car can be set at 3m or so).
Unit shelf span (ie length) should not be too long, the unit shelf depth (ie width) should not be too deep, according to its unit shelf load per layer can be divided into light, medium and heavy shelf shelves, , Wood board two.
(1) light shelf shelf: unit shelf load of each layer is not greater than 200kg, the total load is generally not more than 2000kg. Unit shelf span is usually not more than 2m, the depth of not more than 1m (mostly within 0.6m), the height is generally within 3m, common for the angle column structure, the appearance of light, beautiful, mainly for the storage of light and small items.
Capital investment, widely used in electronics, light industry, culture and education and other industries.
(2) medium shelf shelf: unit shelf load per layer is generally between 200 ~ 800 kg, the total load is generally not more than 5000kg. Unit shelf span is usually not more than 2.6m, the depth is not greater than 1m, the height is generally within 3m. If the unit shelf span within 2m, the layer within 500kg, usually choose no beam medium shelf shelves more appropriate; if the unit shelf span of 2m or more, you can only choose a beam medium shelf shelves.
No beam-type medium-sized shelves and beam-type medium-sized shelves compared to the gap between the larger, more stable, beautiful, and the coordination of the environment better, more suitable for some cleanliness requirements of the warehouse; Medium shelf shelves are more powerful industrial characteristics, more suitable for storage of metal structure products. Medium shelf shelves are widely used and apply to all walks of life.
(3) heavy shelf shelf: unit shelf load of each layer is usually between 500 ~ 1500kg, the unit shelf span is generally within 3m, the depth of 1.2m or less, the height is not limited, and is usually combined with heavy-duty pallet rack, The following layers are shelves, manual access operations, and parts with a height above 2m are usually tray-type shelves and are accessed using forklifts.
Mainly for some of the need for the whole care access, but also zero deposit zero situation, in the large warehouse-style supermarkets and logistics centers are more common.
2, tray-type shelves
Pallet racks, and commonly known as beam-type shelves, or cargo shelves, usually heavy shelves, in the domestic storage shelves of the most common system.
It is necessary to carry out the assembly unit work, namely the cargo packaging and its weight and other characteristics of the group disk to determine the type of tray, size, size, and a single load weight and heap (single cargo weight is generally less than 2000kg), and then The height, depth and spacing of the unit shelves are determined, and the height of the shelves is determined by the effective height of the lower edge of the warehouse roof and the maximum fork height of the forklift.
Unit shelf span is generally less than 4m, the depth of 1.5m or less, low, high warehouse shelves height generally within 12m, ultra-high warehouse shelves height generally within 30m (such warehouses are basically automatic warehouse, the total height of the shelves from a number of sections 12m within the column composition).
Shelves in such a warehouse, low and high warehouse most of the front-wheeled battery forklift, balance heavy battery forklift, three-way forklift access operations, shelves can also be used when the electric stacker, high-level warehouse with stacking machine Access operation.
This kind of shelf system space utilization is high, access is flexible and convenient, supplemented by computer management or control, basically can meet the requirements of modern logistics system. Widely used in manufacturing, third-party logistics and distribution centers and other fields, both for multi-species small quantities of goods, but also for small varieties of large quantities of goods. Such shelves are used in high warehouses and ultra-high warehouses (most of these shelves are used in automated warehouses).
3, through the shelf
Through-type shelves, also known as corridor-style shelves, into the shelves. This system shelves, space utilization is very high, almost twice the tray-type shelves, but the goods must be a small variety of large quantities, advanced goods out.
First, the unit should be carried out to work to determine the specifications of the tray, load and pile height. This determines the span, depth, and spacing of the unit shelf, and determines the height of the shelf according to the effective height along the lower edge of the roof.
The total depth of the shelves in the wall area is preferably controlled within 6 pallet depths, and the total depth of the rack area in and out of both areas is preferably controlled within 12 pallet depths to improve the efficiency and reliability of forklift access Shelf system, the forklift for the continued "high hold high" mode of operation, forklift easy to shake and hit the shelf, so the stability of the consideration is essential or not.
Such a storage system is weak, the shelf should not be too high, usually should be controlled within 10m, and in order to strengthen the stability of the entire shelf system, in addition to specifications, selection to be larger, but also to add a tensile device.
Single cargo should not be too large, too heavy, usually within 1500kg weight control, tray span should not be greater than 1.5m. Often with forklift for the forward battery forklift or counterweight battery forklift. Used for dairy products, beverages and other food industry, cold storage is also more common.
4, gravity shelves
Gravity-type shelves evolved from the tray-type shelves, the use of roller-type track or bottom-wheel tray, the track was a certain slope (3 ° or so), the use of cargo self-weight, to achieve the first out of the goods, while the other side, In high-volume, similar goods in the first-in first-out storage operations, space utilization is high, especially for a certain warranty period, not long-term backlog of goods.
The total depth of the shelf (that is, the length of the rail) should not be too large, otherwise the upper and lower "dead ends" will be larger, affecting the use of space, and the ramp is too long, the controllability of the decline will be poor, Causing slippery slippery, blocking, pallets of goods tipping.
In order to make the slippery smooth, if the ramp is longer, should be added in the middle of the damping device, in order to make the pallet cargo down to the bottom of the impact will not be due to excessive impact and tipping, should be the lowest slope at the buffer device and take Cargo separation device, so the design, manufacture, installation more difficult, high cost. Such a shelf should not be too high, generally within 6m, single cargo weight is generally less than 1000kg, otherwise its reliability and operability will be reduced. Such a shelf system is currently not a lot of domestic applications.
5, pressed into the shelf
(3 ° or so), the use of cargo self-weight, to achieve the advanced tray goods back, the same side into the bottom of the goods, the use of rails and tray trolley combination of the principle of the track was a certain slope The same side, for large quantities of small variety of goods storage, space utilization is high, access is also more flexible and convenient.
The total depth of the shelves should not be too deep, usually within the depth of the five trays, or because the tray car embedded in each other's reasons will make space sacrifice larger. Single cargo weight is generally less than 1500kg, the shelf height is generally within 6m.
Such a system on the shelf manufacturing requirements of a higher precision, tray trolley and rail between the coordination is particularly important, such as manufacturing, installation accuracy is not high, easily lead to poor shelf system operation. Such a shelf cost is higher, has a certain application in the country.
6, attic style shelves
The loft-style shelving system is to build an intermediate attic in the existing workplace or on the shelves to increase the storage space, to do two or three lofts, to access some light bulbs and small pieces of goods, suitable for multiple varieties of large quantities or Multi-species small quantities of goods, manual access to goods, goods usually by forklifts, hydraulic lift or freight ladder to the second floor, third floor, and then by a light car or hydraulic pallet truck to a location.
Such a system, usually using medium-shelf shelves or heavy shelf shelves as the main body and floor support (according to the unit load to determine the total weight of the shelf), floor panels are usually selected cold-rolled steel floor, Or steel grille floor.
In recent years, the use of cold-rolled steel floor, it has a strong carrying capacity, good integrity, good load uniformity, high precision, smooth surface, easy to lock and other advantages, there are many types of optional, and easy to match the lighting system, Take, management are more convenient.
Unit shelf load per floor is usually within 500kg, the floor spacing is usually 2.2m ~ 2.7m, the top shelf height is generally about 2m, fully consider the convenience of man-machine operation. Such systems in the field of auto parts, automotive 4S shop, light industry, electronics and other industries have more applications.
7, steel structure platform
Steel platform is usually in the existing workshop (warehouse) site to build a two or three layers of the whole assembly of steel structure platform, the use of space from one layer into a two-story, three, so that space is fully utilized.
Goods from the forklift or lift the cargo ladder to the second floor, third floor, and then by car or hydraulic truck to the designated location. This platform compared with the reinforced concrete platform, the construction of fast, affordable, easy to install easy to dismantle, and easy to use, the structure of new and beautiful.
This platform column spacing is usually within 4 ~ 6m, the first floor of about 3m high, second and third floor about 2.5m high, the shelf column is usually made of square tube or tube made of main and vice beam is usually made of H steel The panel is usually cold-rolled steel floor, tiled steel floor, steel grille, floor load is usually within 1000kg per square meter.
Such a platform allows warehousing and management to be combined with the nearest distance, upstairs or downstairs for the Treasury office. Such systems are used in third-party logistics, machinery manufacturing and other industries.
8, cantilevered shelves
Cantilever type is mainly used for storing long materials, such as profiles, pipes, plates, cables and so on. The columns are made of H-shaped steel or cold-rolled steel, cantilever adopts square pipe, cold-rolled steel or H-shaped steel, Type or bolt connection type, the base and the column between the bolted connection, the base of cold-rolled steel or H-beam.
Cargo access is carried out by forklift, driving or manual. Shelf height is usually within 2.5 meters (such as by forklift access can be up to 6 meters), cantilever length of 1.5 meters, the load per arm is usually less than 1000kg. Such shelves are used for machinery manufacturing and building materials supermarkets.
9, mobile shelves
The mobile shelves are usually evolved from medium-sized beam-type shelves, and the roller-type aluminum alloy or sheet metal flow bars are arranged between the front and back beams of each shelf, and are placed at a certain slope (about 3 °).
The goods are usually paper packaging or the goods in the plastic turnover box, the use of its weight to achieve the flow of goods and first-in first-out, the goods transported by the car, manual access, access convenience, the unit shelf load per layer is usually 1000kg , The shelf height is less than 2.5 meters.
Suitable for the assembly line on both sides of the process conversion, distribution center picking operations and other places, can be equipped with electronic tags to achieve the information management of goods.
10, drawer shelf
Drawer-style shelves from the heavy tray-type shelf evolved, usually used to store mold and other heavy objects, and the scene and no suitable forklift available.
Combined with the assembly, bolt-linked shelf structure, the shelf height is generally below 2.5m, in addition to the top layer of several layers can be designed into a drawer-style structure, safe and reliable, can easily draw up to 2000kg / layer of goods, supplemented by traffic Or gourd hanging, easy access to goods access operations.
Such shelves are mainly used for storage of mold and other special places.
Third, the shelf procurement attention
Requirements for warehouse shelving systems should normally include: warehouse floor plan, unit (package) cargo specifications, characteristics, weight, unit pallet cargo specifications, heap height and load, access method (manual access, mechanical access , Automatic access) and access equipment, storage requirements, access to the library frequency requirements, management system requirements, control methods.
The purchase process of the shelf system mainly includes: the demand side to put forward the warehouse shelves system requirements - the shelf supplier for the program design selection - the program discussion and the optimization - the plan rationality, the optimism appraisal - the quotation - the supplier chooses - Contract Signing - Shelf System Detailed Technical Design - Shelf System Manufacturing (preparation, processing, surface treatment, packaging, etc.) - Shelf system installation - Acceptance.
Procurement of the installation services accounted for a larger proportion. According to the characteristics of shelf procurement, the user is recommended to note the following questions:
1, select the appropriate shelf type
According to their own goods specifications and characteristics to select the appropriate shelf form, so as to improve the utilization of the shelves, while improving the efficiency of the use of the warehouse. Suggest the user in the warehouse system design, consult the shelf manufacturers.
2, pay attention to the shelf construction period
Most of the shelves are custom processing, the customer needs to set aside the design, production, transportation, installation time, the time to determine, it is recommended that customers in advance with the shelf manufacturers to communicate, and then according to their own needs to use the time to make reasonable arrangements.
3, pay attention to the conditions of the shelf site
Now a lot of projects in the construction of the building still need to install the shelves to install, in fact, when the installation conditions are not available when the shelves approach construction, often lead to shelf construction period can not control the shelf construction quality can not be guaranteed. After all, the last product is the shelf construction site construction, a good construction environment is the product quality and duration of an important guarantee.